Vermont Tree Wardens

A tree warden is the designated individual in each Vermont community responsible for making determinations about the care and stewardship of shade trees in public ways and places. Municipal shade trees include those trees planted by the municipality in downtowns and village centers or on other municipally-owned land, and trees on public property or in public right-of-ways that have been designated as shade trees. State law in Vermont, as in all New England states, requires the legislative body of each municipality to appoint a tree warden.

The tree warden's duties and responsibilities are officially outlined in the Vermont Tree Warden Statutes that were first adopted in 1904 and were amended and updated in 2020. While many tree wardens are trained arborists, foresters, or natural resources professionals who take on the role of tree warden as a volunteer, many others are already municipal employees within public works departments, parks departments, or roads crews.

The position of tree warden is a unique legal responsibility that protects and celebrates a natural resource. While tree wardens may not work directly with one another, the collective action they take ensures a unified commitment throughout Vermont to grow healthy and resilient trees on public property.

Learn more about the 2020 updates to the Vermont tree warden statutes or visit the Tree Law webpage by the Vermont League of Cities and Towns.

Are you a tree warden? Read our resources for tree wardens to learn more about the role you play in your community.

What does a tree warden do?

A municipal tree warden makes decisions about the care of existing shade trees in public ways and places, including the need for pruning, root care, protection against disease or pests, and removal. The tree warden may also advise the municipality about tree planting on municipally-owned land or in the right-of-way of municipal roads. 

Many tree wardens expand upon the basic responsibilities of the role and play an active role in their local urban and community tree stewardship efforts. This can include leading or assisting with public tree inventories and tree health assessments, sitting on the municipal tree committee or board as an ad hoc member, or developing municipal bylaws and plans to ensure the long-term maintenance and management of the public tree population.

Who is my tree warden?

Effective November 1st, 2020, municipalities will be required to report the name and contact information for their appointed tree warden annually to the Commissioner of Forests, Parks & Recreation in accordance with the updated tree warden statutes.  View Tree Warden Contact List, updated April 2022.

How can my municipality's tree warden help me?

According to the amended Tree Warden Statutes, the tree warden shall control all shade trees within the municipality. 

A shade tree is defined as a shade or ornamental tree located in whole or in part within the limits of a public way or public place, provided that the tree is either (a) planted by the municipality or (b) is designated as a shade tree pursuant to a municipal shade tree preservation plan. Public place is defined as municipal property, including a municipal park, a recreation area, or a municipal building. Public way is defined as a right-of-way held by a municipality, including a town highway.  

Shade Tree Removal

Each municipality manages trees on public land, which includes town-owned parks, buildings, and properties i.e. cemeteries; this varies by municipality, as well as the public right-of-way. Within the public right-of-way, while the adjoining landowner owns the land, the municipality has the authority to maintain the trees - and all other public infrastructure like sidewalks, fire hydrants, street lights - within that land area.  

According to the amended Tree Warden Statutes, the tree warden has the sole authority to make a determination regarding the removal of a shade tree, which - again- is a tree on a public way or place that has either been intentionally planted by the municipality or has been specifically identified and designated as a shade tree by the municipality.  If a citizen has a concern regarding the health of a public shade tree or wishes to have a public shade tree removed for any reason, they need to first contact their tree warden. 

In the event that the tree warden determines that a shade tree will be removed, they must post public notice and notify abutting landowners unless the shade tree is (a) a hazard to public safety, (b) must be removed to comply with State or federal law or permitting requirements, or (c) is infested with or threatened by a known forest pest and is within a designated infestation area.  If the removal of the tree is appealed, the legislative body of the municipality will hold a public hearing and make a final decision after public comment is received.  

Shade Tree Care and Planting
If you notice a need for public shade tree care such as pruning, mulching, or pest control, and/or an opportunity to plant tree(s), contact your tree warden. They can help assess the need and how the work might fit within the municipal shade tree care management plan.

Tree Information
In many cases, the tree warden is the person most familiar with the tree population in your town, thus possessing a wealth of knowledge. Keep your eyes peeled in your local bulletin for tree warden updates or events; many Vermont tree wardens are very engaged, so take advantage of the services they offer. 

History of Vermont Tree Wardens

The history of tree wardens in Vermont is intrinsically linked to the history of tree wardens throughout New England. Massachusetts passed the first Tree Warden Statue in 1899, mandating the appointment of a tree warden in each community throughout the state. Other New England states followed shortly after, with Vermont mandating the role in the legislature in 1904. 

Tree Wardens marked a turning point in the post-settlement philosophy regarding trees. Early European settlers cleared vast portions of the countryside and farmland developed alongside communities, changing the landscape from forests to fields. While a few tree societies sprouted between the 1600's and the 1800's, it wasn't until after the Civil War that the need for someone to "speak for the trees" was recognized. In the midst of an industrial boom, Americans were starting to see that city-living would only be tolerable if it were to be accompanied by greenery and outdoor spaces. Cities and villages began to plan parks and plant trees along roadsides. This paired with the increased attention to public safety and a municipality's responsibility to manage its infrastructure set the stage for the development of the role of the tree warden across New England.  

Tree warden responsibilities today are similar to what they were at the turn of the century: to care for trees that provide public benefits and make decisions about the hazards that such trees may pose. While the ultimate goal for tree wardens may not have changed much in the last hundred years, the world we live in certainly has. Where the first tree wardens stood to protect trees from harmful pruning and unnecessary cutting, tree wardens today wage a different battle. From damaging road salt to encroaching power lines, tree wardens now manage trees in new ways.  

Tree Wardens and the Evolution of Urban Forestry in New England

Tree Warden Profiles

Click on the links below to learn a bit more about some of the most engaged tree wardens across the state.  These profiles were developed by a student intern in 2017.  

Dan Adams, Brattleboro
Mark Dillenbeck, Charlotte
Brad Goedkoop, Hartford
Warren Spinner, Essex Junction
Chris Zeoli, Middlebury